Если в 1854 году англичане не имели возможности подступиться к руским батареям поближе; а подступившись наконец, были тут же опрокинуты в море, - словом, зарисовывали расположение укреплений издалека, с долей фантазии, - то в июне 1855 смогли полазить по сопкам, всё обмерить и обнюхать. Русских не было, никтошеньки не мешал. Ну и спасибо супостатам за эти картинки,потому что своих, отечественных найти не удаётся.
1. Fascine Battery for four guns. Elevation, 60 feet.
2. Fascine Battery for four guns. Elevation, 75 feet.
3. Sunk Battery on the Crest of the Hill for six guns. Elevation, 125 feet.
4. Sunk Battery for a pivot-gun, or three others. Elevation, 80 feet.
5. Saddle Battery (fascine), nine guns. Elevation, 25 to 30 feet.
6. Turf Battery, four guns. Elevation, 80 feet.
7. Fascine for six guns, not complete (evidently to be increased).
8. Turf Battery for seven guns, with Block-house in rear.
9. Fascine Battery for thirteen guns. Elevation, 6 feet.
10. Battery for five guns. Elevation, 20 feet.
11. Site of old Three-gun Battery, sunk and altered for four guns.
12. Sunk Battery for seven guns.
13. Burial-place of the English, French, and Russians killed on the
4th Sept., 1854.
1. Фашинная батарея на четыре орудия. Высота 60 футов.
2. Фашинная батарея на четыре орудия. Высота 75 футов.
3. Заглублённая батарея на гребне холма на шесть орудий. Высота 125 футов.
4. Заглублённая батарея для поворотного орудия или трёх иных. Высота 80 футов.
5. Перешеечная батареи (фашинная), девять орудий. Высота от 25 до 30 футов.
6. Дёрновая батарея, четыре орудия. Высота 80 футов.
7. Фашинная на шесть орудий, недостроенная (очевидно должна быть больше).
8. Дёрновая батарея на семь пушек, с блокгаузом позади.
9. Фашинная батарея на тринадцать орудий. Высота 6 футов.
10. Батарея на пять пушек. Высота 20 футов.
11. Место старой трехорудийной батареи, заглублённой и переделанной на четыре орудия.
12. Заглублённая батарея на семь орудий.
13. Могила англичан, французов и русских, погибших 4 сентября 1854.
(Кажется, вопрос о расположении батареи № 4 - на плане под цифрой 12 - для меня ещё не закрыт.)
Ещё две картинки с той же страницы.
Ну и текст статьи - я пока не озадачился его перевести, но подозреваю, что нового почерпну не много.
Дж. Д. Грейнджер заметил, что никто из современников не смог написать правильно название русского корвета "Оливуца" - ну, теперь его перекрестили в "Уналашку". (Сложности русского языка ни при чём: "Оливуццо" - место императорской дачи на Сицилии.)
OPERATIONS AGAINST THE RUSSIAN SQUADRON
IN THE PACIFIC.
H.M.S. Trincomalee, Cruising off Sitka, August 8,1855.
By the official despatches you will have learned the principal facts relating to the proceedings of the Pacific squadron under Admiral Bruce, still a few particulars, collected after the departure of the French and English squadrons from Petropaulovski, may prove interesting.
The Admiral sailed from Avacha bay on the 19th June, leaving the Trincomalee to await the arrival of the Monarch, and also to treat for an exchange of prisoners.
Although the town of Petropaulovski had been deserted some time, two American gentlemen, merchants of the place, still remained. Through them it was ascertained that a Russian officer was in the neighbourhood with whom negotiations could be opened if a safe conduct were allowed. A flag of truce was accordingly hoisted, and the following day Captain Martinoff, Aide de-Camp to the Governor-General of Siberia, came on board. It appeared that there were two seamen in the hands of the Russians — one French the other English: the former was severely wounded in both arms, and still suffering, at the little village of Avacha, where the garrison of Petropaulovski (470 in number) were encamped; the latter was some distance in the interior, with the trappers, and it would take a week to get him down.
Captain Martinoff had brought the despatch ordering the evacuation of Petropaulovski in case of the non-arrival of the Diana. His journey through Siberia occupied three months, being the quickest ever made. On the 20th December, 1854, he started from St. Petersburg, arrived at Irkutsk, the residence of the Governor-General of Siberia, on the 5th January, 1855; left that place the 12th — crossing Lake Baikal, a distance of sixty-one miles, in the incredibly short time of one hour and fifty minute, and arrived at Ochotsk Feb. 2. At the time Captain Martinoff related this circumstance it was suggested he meant versts (two-thirds of a mile), but he repeated sixty-one miles; and an American gentleman who was present stated that the distance was correct. As Captain Martinoff spoke English fluently, and mentioned other distances in miles, giving the corresponding number of versts, his statement could not be further questioned; but he informed us that the horses for drawing the light sledges across the smooth ice were of a particular breed, employed only on that work, that their speed was unequalled. Their treatment after one of these trips would rather astonish an English groom. Immediately on arriving they are tied to a short halter, and bucket after bucket of water thrown over them, which freezes, and they stand in a coating of ice. They are kept in this position for four or five hours, then taken in and fed largely until required for a similar purpose.
The journey from Ochotsk round the heel of the Ochotsk Sea to the south of Kamschatka was performed on a sledge drawn by dogs. After travelling for five weeks and four days in this manner, Captain Martinoff arrived at Petropaulovski March 13. This passage was done with such speed that even the Russians themselves marvelled.
The Aurora, 44, Oonolaska, 22, and Dwina, 18, at the time of Captain Martinoff's arrival, were frozen in the harbour; the Diana, 50, was daily expected in the Bay of Avacha, which is open during the most severe winter. New earthworks had been thrown up after the departure of the combined squadron last year, and the place rendered doubly strong. The Oonalaska, too, was an addition, and they only required the men, guns, and ammunition of the Diana to be enabled to make a vigorous resistance in case of attack. The season advancing and the Diana not making her appearance, preparations were made for evacuating the place; the ships were cut out of the ice — their men, guns, and ammunition put on board, and they finally sailed on the 15th April. A few weeks after their departure the Russian Admiral arrived in a small schooner, this was the first intelligence they received at Petropaulovski of the loss of the Diana at the island of Jeddo. The Pallas not being seaworthy, the Admiral had hoisted his flag in the Diana, and sailed from Amoor to negotiate for the Japanese ports being open to Russian commerce. The following was his account of the wreck to Captain Martinoff: — "The ship was lying at anchor in Jeddo, when one of the most severe earthquakes the world ever experienced took place. In an hour she was swung round her anchors forty times; then, with a tremendous jerk which parted both cables was driven high and dry on the beach! Only one life was lost, and that by one of her guns breaking adrift. By great exertions she was again floated, and was being towed into a neighbouring bay to be hove down, when a strange noise was heard, the men in the boats (the Japanese towing) fearing it was the forerunner of another earthquake, cast off and pulled for the shore, the people of the ship got into their boats, and the Diana almost immediately filled and went down. The Admiral then built a small schooner with his own resources, and came over with part of the Diana's crew, to assist in defending Petropaulovski. Whilst remaining to recruit his men, our squadron was signalled off the port, and trusting to the mist which usually hangs to the land, he started with the intention of sweeping his schooner close along shore, hoping to escape notice, in which he was successful.
The garrison of Petropaulovski retired to Avacha, where they are at present encamped, their number is 470, of whom half are Cossacks, 100 Siberian trappers, and the rest marines. The Monarch arrived at Petropaulovski on the 23rd June: she is the first line-of-battle ship that ever entered Avacha Bay. The Sketch taken in the Bay shows her at anchor, with the flag of truce flying. The town of Petropaulovski is partly open, the remainder shut in by Point Schakoff, on which you will perceive from the plan there were three batteries, one over the other. Just ahead of the Monarch is the three-gun battery stormed last year; the highest part of the promontory, of which Point Schakoff forms the extreme, is the spot on which so many of our countrymen and Allies fell last year. The snow-clad hill on the left is Avacha, about thirty miles distant. The volcanic mountain of Koricuska was generally active when seen by us; but the Russians state that for sixteen years it "slept," and wittily added, "that, like a good Russian subject, it roused up at the approach of the enemy to show its displeasure." The sketch of the town is taken from Point Schakoff; from the pier a road leads up to the magazine, barracks, &c, close to which are the graves of the French and English and those of the Russians, placed side by side, at the foot of the hill where they fell. They occupy two mounds, decently railed in, the Russian, Greek, and Catholic cross being the only distinguishing marks. A spit runs across the harbour, leaving a small entrance where the Aurora was anchored last year. As the Trincomalee is the only English man-of-war that ever anchored at Sitka, and is now cruising off it, a sketch of the town is inclosed. The Admiral left us here on the 17 th July, after reconnoitring — the particulars of which you already know.
John S. H. Royal M.
UPD: Автор заметки, как удалось выяснить, лейтенант корвета "Тринкомали" Джон Танстол Хаверфилд, John Tunstall Haverfield (1825 - 1885), впоследствии известный как художник-пейзажист. Так что рисунки, с которых сделаны гравюры, вероятно, ему и принадлежат.